0a47d969a4e8d3f50438fc69bbede379e6715c50
[urcu.git] / urcu-call-rcu-impl.h
1 /*
2 * urcu-call-rcu.c
3 *
4 * Userspace RCU library - batch memory reclamation with kernel API
5 *
6 * Copyright (c) 2010 Paul E. McKenney <paulmck@linux.vnet.ibm.com>
7 *
8 * This library is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
9 * modify it under the terms of the GNU Lesser General Public
10 * License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either
11 * version 2.1 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.
12 *
13 * This library is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
14 * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
15 * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU
16 * Lesser General Public License for more details.
17 *
18 * You should have received a copy of the GNU Lesser General Public
19 * License along with this library; if not, write to the Free Software
20 * Foundation, Inc., 51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA
21 */
22
23 #define _GNU_SOURCE
24 #include <stdio.h>
25 #include <pthread.h>
26 #include <signal.h>
27 #include <assert.h>
28 #include <stdlib.h>
29 #include <stdint.h>
30 #include <string.h>
31 #include <errno.h>
32 #include <poll.h>
33 #include <sys/time.h>
34 #include <unistd.h>
35 #include <sched.h>
36
37 #include "config.h"
38 #include "urcu/wfqueue.h"
39 #include "urcu-call-rcu.h"
40 #include "urcu-pointer.h"
41 #include "urcu/list.h"
42 #include "urcu/futex.h"
43
44 /* Data structure that identifies a call_rcu thread. */
45
46 struct call_rcu_data {
47 struct cds_wfq_queue cbs;
48 unsigned long flags;
49 int32_t futex;
50 unsigned long qlen; /* maintained for debugging. */
51 pthread_t tid;
52 int cpu_affinity;
53 struct cds_list_head list;
54 } __attribute__((aligned(CAA_CACHE_LINE_SIZE)));
55
56 /*
57 * List of all call_rcu_data structures to keep valgrind happy.
58 * Protected by call_rcu_mutex.
59 */
60
61 CDS_LIST_HEAD(call_rcu_data_list);
62
63 /* Link a thread using call_rcu() to its call_rcu thread. */
64
65 static __thread struct call_rcu_data *thread_call_rcu_data;
66
67 /* Guard call_rcu thread creation. */
68
69 static pthread_mutex_t call_rcu_mutex = PTHREAD_MUTEX_INITIALIZER;
70
71 /* If a given thread does not have its own call_rcu thread, this is default. */
72
73 static struct call_rcu_data *default_call_rcu_data;
74
75 /*
76 * If the sched_getcpu() and sysconf(_SC_NPROCESSORS_CONF) calls are
77 * available, then we can have call_rcu threads assigned to individual
78 * CPUs rather than only to specific threads.
79 */
80
81 #if defined(HAVE_SCHED_GETCPU) && defined(HAVE_SYSCONF)
82
83 /*
84 * Pointer to array of pointers to per-CPU call_rcu_data structures
85 * and # CPUs.
86 */
87
88 static struct call_rcu_data **per_cpu_call_rcu_data;
89 static long maxcpus;
90
91 static void maxcpus_reset(void)
92 {
93 maxcpus = 0;
94 }
95
96 /* Allocate the array if it has not already been allocated. */
97
98 static void alloc_cpu_call_rcu_data(void)
99 {
100 struct call_rcu_data **p;
101 static int warned = 0;
102
103 if (maxcpus != 0)
104 return;
105 maxcpus = sysconf(_SC_NPROCESSORS_CONF);
106 if (maxcpus <= 0) {
107 return;
108 }
109 p = malloc(maxcpus * sizeof(*per_cpu_call_rcu_data));
110 if (p != NULL) {
111 memset(p, '\0', maxcpus * sizeof(*per_cpu_call_rcu_data));
112 per_cpu_call_rcu_data = p;
113 } else {
114 if (!warned) {
115 fprintf(stderr, "[error] liburcu: unable to allocate per-CPU pointer array\n");
116 }
117 warned = 1;
118 }
119 }
120
121 #else /* #if defined(HAVE_SCHED_GETCPU) && defined(HAVE_SYSCONF) */
122
123 /*
124 * per_cpu_call_rcu_data should be constant, but some functions below, used both
125 * for cases where cpu number is available and not available, assume it it not
126 * constant.
127 */
128 static struct call_rcu_data **per_cpu_call_rcu_data = NULL;
129 static const long maxcpus = -1;
130
131 static void maxcpus_reset(void)
132 {
133 }
134
135 static void alloc_cpu_call_rcu_data(void)
136 {
137 }
138
139 static int sched_getcpu(void)
140 {
141 return -1;
142 }
143
144 #endif /* #else #if defined(HAVE_SCHED_GETCPU) && defined(HAVE_SYSCONF) */
145
146 /* Acquire the specified pthread mutex. */
147
148 static void call_rcu_lock(pthread_mutex_t *pmp)
149 {
150 if (pthread_mutex_lock(pmp) != 0) {
151 perror("pthread_mutex_lock");
152 exit(-1);
153 }
154 }
155
156 /* Release the specified pthread mutex. */
157
158 static void call_rcu_unlock(pthread_mutex_t *pmp)
159 {
160 if (pthread_mutex_unlock(pmp) != 0) {
161 perror("pthread_mutex_unlock");
162 exit(-1);
163 }
164 }
165
166 #if HAVE_SCHED_SETAFFINITY
167 static
168 int set_thread_cpu_affinity(struct call_rcu_data *crdp)
169 {
170 cpu_set_t mask;
171
172 if (crdp->cpu_affinity < 0)
173 return 0;
174
175 CPU_ZERO(&mask);
176 CPU_SET(crdp->cpu_affinity, &mask);
177 #if SCHED_SETAFFINITY_ARGS == 2
178 return sched_setaffinity(0, &mask);
179 #else
180 return sched_setaffinity(0, sizeof(mask), &mask);
181 #endif
182 }
183 #else
184 static
185 int set_thread_cpu_affinity(struct call_rcu_data *crdp)
186 {
187 return 0;
188 }
189 #endif
190
191 static void call_rcu_wait(struct call_rcu_data *crdp)
192 {
193 /* Read call_rcu list before read futex */
194 cmm_smp_mb();
195 if (uatomic_read(&crdp->futex) == -1)
196 futex_async(&crdp->futex, FUTEX_WAIT, -1,
197 NULL, NULL, 0);
198 }
199
200 static void call_rcu_wake_up(struct call_rcu_data *crdp)
201 {
202 /* Write to call_rcu list before reading/writing futex */
203 cmm_smp_mb();
204 if (unlikely(uatomic_read(&crdp->futex) == -1)) {
205 uatomic_set(&crdp->futex, 0);
206 futex_async(&crdp->futex, FUTEX_WAKE, 1,
207 NULL, NULL, 0);
208 }
209 }
210
211 /* This is the code run by each call_rcu thread. */
212
213 static void *call_rcu_thread(void *arg)
214 {
215 unsigned long cbcount;
216 struct cds_wfq_node *cbs;
217 struct cds_wfq_node **cbs_tail;
218 struct call_rcu_data *crdp = (struct call_rcu_data *)arg;
219 struct rcu_head *rhp;
220 int rt = !!(uatomic_read(&crdp->flags) & URCU_CALL_RCU_RT);
221
222 if (set_thread_cpu_affinity(crdp) != 0) {
223 perror("pthread_setaffinity_np");
224 exit(-1);
225 }
226
227 /*
228 * If callbacks take a read-side lock, we need to be registered.
229 */
230 rcu_register_thread();
231
232 thread_call_rcu_data = crdp;
233 if (!rt) {
234 uatomic_dec(&crdp->futex);
235 /* Decrement futex before reading call_rcu list */
236 cmm_smp_mb();
237 }
238 for (;;) {
239 if (&crdp->cbs.head != _CMM_LOAD_SHARED(crdp->cbs.tail)) {
240 while ((cbs = _CMM_LOAD_SHARED(crdp->cbs.head)) == NULL)
241 poll(NULL, 0, 1);
242 _CMM_STORE_SHARED(crdp->cbs.head, NULL);
243 cbs_tail = (struct cds_wfq_node **)
244 uatomic_xchg(&crdp->cbs.tail, &crdp->cbs.head);
245 synchronize_rcu();
246 cbcount = 0;
247 do {
248 while (cbs->next == NULL &&
249 &cbs->next != cbs_tail)
250 poll(NULL, 0, 1);
251 if (cbs == &crdp->cbs.dummy) {
252 cbs = cbs->next;
253 continue;
254 }
255 rhp = (struct rcu_head *)cbs;
256 cbs = cbs->next;
257 rhp->func(rhp);
258 cbcount++;
259 } while (cbs != NULL);
260 uatomic_sub(&crdp->qlen, cbcount);
261 }
262 if (uatomic_read(&crdp->flags) & URCU_CALL_RCU_STOP)
263 break;
264 rcu_thread_offline();
265 if (!rt) {
266 if (&crdp->cbs.head
267 == _CMM_LOAD_SHARED(crdp->cbs.tail)) {
268 call_rcu_wait(crdp);
269 poll(NULL, 0, 10);
270 uatomic_dec(&crdp->futex);
271 /*
272 * Decrement futex before reading
273 * call_rcu list.
274 */
275 cmm_smp_mb();
276 } else {
277 poll(NULL, 0, 10);
278 }
279 } else {
280 poll(NULL, 0, 10);
281 }
282 rcu_thread_online();
283 }
284 if (!rt) {
285 /*
286 * Read call_rcu list before write futex.
287 */
288 cmm_smp_mb();
289 uatomic_set(&crdp->futex, 0);
290 }
291 uatomic_or(&crdp->flags, URCU_CALL_RCU_STOPPED);
292 rcu_unregister_thread();
293 return NULL;
294 }
295
296 /*
297 * Create both a call_rcu thread and the corresponding call_rcu_data
298 * structure, linking the structure in as specified. Caller must hold
299 * call_rcu_mutex.
300 */
301
302 static void call_rcu_data_init(struct call_rcu_data **crdpp,
303 unsigned long flags,
304 int cpu_affinity)
305 {
306 struct call_rcu_data *crdp;
307
308 crdp = malloc(sizeof(*crdp));
309 if (crdp == NULL) {
310 fprintf(stderr, "Out of memory.\n");
311 exit(-1);
312 }
313 memset(crdp, '\0', sizeof(*crdp));
314 cds_wfq_init(&crdp->cbs);
315 crdp->qlen = 0;
316 crdp->futex = 0;
317 crdp->flags = flags;
318 cds_list_add(&crdp->list, &call_rcu_data_list);
319 crdp->cpu_affinity = cpu_affinity;
320 cmm_smp_mb(); /* Structure initialized before pointer is planted. */
321 *crdpp = crdp;
322 if (pthread_create(&crdp->tid, NULL, call_rcu_thread, crdp) != 0) {
323 perror("pthread_create");
324 exit(-1);
325 }
326 }
327
328 /*
329 * Return a pointer to the call_rcu_data structure for the specified
330 * CPU, returning NULL if there is none. We cannot automatically
331 * created it because the platform we are running on might not define
332 * sched_getcpu().
333 */
334
335 struct call_rcu_data *get_cpu_call_rcu_data(int cpu)
336 {
337 static int warned = 0;
338
339 if (per_cpu_call_rcu_data == NULL)
340 return NULL;
341 if (!warned && maxcpus > 0 && (cpu < 0 || maxcpus <= cpu)) {
342 fprintf(stderr, "[error] liburcu: get CPU # out of range\n");
343 warned = 1;
344 }
345 if (cpu < 0 || maxcpus <= cpu)
346 return NULL;
347 return per_cpu_call_rcu_data[cpu];
348 }
349
350 /*
351 * Return the tid corresponding to the call_rcu thread whose
352 * call_rcu_data structure is specified.
353 */
354
355 pthread_t get_call_rcu_thread(struct call_rcu_data *crdp)
356 {
357 return crdp->tid;
358 }
359
360 /*
361 * Create a call_rcu_data structure (with thread) and return a pointer.
362 */
363
364 static struct call_rcu_data *__create_call_rcu_data(unsigned long flags,
365 int cpu_affinity)
366 {
367 struct call_rcu_data *crdp;
368
369 call_rcu_data_init(&crdp, flags, cpu_affinity);
370 return crdp;
371 }
372
373 struct call_rcu_data *create_call_rcu_data(unsigned long flags,
374 int cpu_affinity)
375 {
376 struct call_rcu_data *crdp;
377
378 call_rcu_lock(&call_rcu_mutex);
379 crdp = __create_call_rcu_data(flags, cpu_affinity);
380 call_rcu_unlock(&call_rcu_mutex);
381 return crdp;
382 }
383
384 /*
385 * Set the specified CPU to use the specified call_rcu_data structure.
386 *
387 * Use NULL to remove a CPU's call_rcu_data structure, but it is
388 * the caller's responsibility to dispose of the removed structure.
389 * Use get_cpu_call_rcu_data() to obtain a pointer to the old structure
390 * (prior to NULLing it out, of course).
391 */
392
393 int set_cpu_call_rcu_data(int cpu, struct call_rcu_data *crdp)
394 {
395 static int warned = 0;
396
397 call_rcu_lock(&call_rcu_mutex);
398 alloc_cpu_call_rcu_data();
399 if (cpu < 0 || maxcpus <= cpu) {
400 if (!warned) {
401 fprintf(stderr, "[error] liburcu: set CPU # out of range\n");
402 warned = 1;
403 }
404 call_rcu_unlock(&call_rcu_mutex);
405 errno = EINVAL;
406 return -EINVAL;
407 }
408
409 if (per_cpu_call_rcu_data == NULL) {
410 call_rcu_unlock(&call_rcu_mutex);
411 errno = ENOMEM;
412 return -ENOMEM;
413 }
414
415 if (per_cpu_call_rcu_data[cpu] != NULL && crdp != NULL) {
416 call_rcu_unlock(&call_rcu_mutex);
417 errno = EEXIST;
418 return -EEXIST;
419 }
420
421 per_cpu_call_rcu_data[cpu] = crdp;
422 call_rcu_unlock(&call_rcu_mutex);
423 return 0;
424 }
425
426 /*
427 * Return a pointer to the default call_rcu_data structure, creating
428 * one if need be. Because we never free call_rcu_data structures,
429 * we don't need to be in an RCU read-side critical section.
430 */
431
432 struct call_rcu_data *get_default_call_rcu_data(void)
433 {
434 if (default_call_rcu_data != NULL)
435 return rcu_dereference(default_call_rcu_data);
436 call_rcu_lock(&call_rcu_mutex);
437 if (default_call_rcu_data != NULL) {
438 call_rcu_unlock(&call_rcu_mutex);
439 return default_call_rcu_data;
440 }
441 call_rcu_data_init(&default_call_rcu_data, 0, -1);
442 call_rcu_unlock(&call_rcu_mutex);
443 return default_call_rcu_data;
444 }
445
446 /*
447 * Return the call_rcu_data structure that applies to the currently
448 * running thread. Any call_rcu_data structure assigned specifically
449 * to this thread has first priority, followed by any call_rcu_data
450 * structure assigned to the CPU on which the thread is running,
451 * followed by the default call_rcu_data structure. If there is not
452 * yet a default call_rcu_data structure, one will be created.
453 */
454 struct call_rcu_data *get_call_rcu_data(void)
455 {
456 struct call_rcu_data *crd;
457
458 if (thread_call_rcu_data != NULL)
459 return thread_call_rcu_data;
460
461 if (maxcpus > 0) {
462 crd = get_cpu_call_rcu_data(sched_getcpu());
463 if (crd)
464 return crd;
465 }
466
467 return get_default_call_rcu_data();
468 }
469
470 /*
471 * Return a pointer to this task's call_rcu_data if there is one.
472 */
473
474 struct call_rcu_data *get_thread_call_rcu_data(void)
475 {
476 return thread_call_rcu_data;
477 }
478
479 /*
480 * Set this task's call_rcu_data structure as specified, regardless
481 * of whether or not this task already had one. (This allows switching
482 * to and from real-time call_rcu threads, for example.)
483 *
484 * Use NULL to remove a thread's call_rcu_data structure, but it is
485 * the caller's responsibility to dispose of the removed structure.
486 * Use get_thread_call_rcu_data() to obtain a pointer to the old structure
487 * (prior to NULLing it out, of course).
488 */
489
490 void set_thread_call_rcu_data(struct call_rcu_data *crdp)
491 {
492 thread_call_rcu_data = crdp;
493 }
494
495 /*
496 * Create a separate call_rcu thread for each CPU. This does not
497 * replace a pre-existing call_rcu thread -- use the set_cpu_call_rcu_data()
498 * function if you want that behavior. Should be paired with
499 * free_all_cpu_call_rcu_data() to teardown these call_rcu worker
500 * threads.
501 */
502
503 int create_all_cpu_call_rcu_data(unsigned long flags)
504 {
505 int i;
506 struct call_rcu_data *crdp;
507 int ret;
508
509 call_rcu_lock(&call_rcu_mutex);
510 alloc_cpu_call_rcu_data();
511 call_rcu_unlock(&call_rcu_mutex);
512 if (maxcpus <= 0) {
513 errno = EINVAL;
514 return -EINVAL;
515 }
516 if (per_cpu_call_rcu_data == NULL) {
517 errno = ENOMEM;
518 return -ENOMEM;
519 }
520 for (i = 0; i < maxcpus; i++) {
521 call_rcu_lock(&call_rcu_mutex);
522 if (get_cpu_call_rcu_data(i)) {
523 call_rcu_unlock(&call_rcu_mutex);
524 continue;
525 }
526 crdp = __create_call_rcu_data(flags, i);
527 if (crdp == NULL) {
528 call_rcu_unlock(&call_rcu_mutex);
529 errno = ENOMEM;
530 return -ENOMEM;
531 }
532 call_rcu_unlock(&call_rcu_mutex);
533 if ((ret = set_cpu_call_rcu_data(i, crdp)) != 0) {
534 call_rcu_data_free(crdp);
535
536 /* it has been created by other thread */
537 if (ret == -EEXIST)
538 continue;
539
540 return ret;
541 }
542 }
543 return 0;
544 }
545
546 /*
547 * Wake up the call_rcu thread corresponding to the specified
548 * call_rcu_data structure.
549 */
550 static void wake_call_rcu_thread(struct call_rcu_data *crdp)
551 {
552 if (!(_CMM_LOAD_SHARED(crdp->flags) & URCU_CALL_RCU_RT))
553 call_rcu_wake_up(crdp);
554 }
555
556 /*
557 * Schedule a function to be invoked after a following grace period.
558 * This is the only function that must be called -- the others are
559 * only present to allow applications to tune their use of RCU for
560 * maximum performance.
561 *
562 * Note that unless a call_rcu thread has not already been created,
563 * the first invocation of call_rcu() will create one. So, if you
564 * need the first invocation of call_rcu() to be fast, make sure
565 * to create a call_rcu thread first. One way to accomplish this is
566 * "get_call_rcu_data();", and another is create_all_cpu_call_rcu_data().
567 */
568
569 void call_rcu(struct rcu_head *head,
570 void (*func)(struct rcu_head *head))
571 {
572 struct call_rcu_data *crdp;
573
574 cds_wfq_node_init(&head->next);
575 head->func = func;
576 crdp = get_call_rcu_data();
577 cds_wfq_enqueue(&crdp->cbs, &head->next);
578 uatomic_inc(&crdp->qlen);
579 wake_call_rcu_thread(crdp);
580 }
581
582 /*
583 * Free up the specified call_rcu_data structure, terminating the
584 * associated call_rcu thread. The caller must have previously
585 * removed the call_rcu_data structure from per-thread or per-CPU
586 * usage. For example, set_cpu_call_rcu_data(cpu, NULL) for per-CPU
587 * call_rcu_data structures or set_thread_call_rcu_data(NULL) for
588 * per-thread call_rcu_data structures.
589 *
590 * We silently refuse to free up the default call_rcu_data structure
591 * because that is where we put any leftover callbacks. Note that
592 * the possibility of self-spawning callbacks makes it impossible
593 * to execute all the callbacks in finite time without putting any
594 * newly spawned callbacks somewhere else. The "somewhere else" of
595 * last resort is the default call_rcu_data structure.
596 *
597 * We also silently refuse to free NULL pointers. This simplifies
598 * the calling code.
599 */
600 void call_rcu_data_free(struct call_rcu_data *crdp)
601 {
602 struct cds_wfq_node *cbs;
603 struct cds_wfq_node **cbs_tail;
604 struct cds_wfq_node **cbs_endprev;
605
606 if (crdp == NULL || crdp == default_call_rcu_data) {
607 return;
608 }
609 if ((uatomic_read(&crdp->flags) & URCU_CALL_RCU_STOPPED) == 0) {
610 uatomic_or(&crdp->flags, URCU_CALL_RCU_STOP);
611 wake_call_rcu_thread(crdp);
612 while ((uatomic_read(&crdp->flags) & URCU_CALL_RCU_STOPPED) == 0)
613 poll(NULL, 0, 1);
614 }
615 if (&crdp->cbs.head != _CMM_LOAD_SHARED(crdp->cbs.tail)) {
616 while ((cbs = _CMM_LOAD_SHARED(crdp->cbs.head)) == NULL)
617 poll(NULL, 0, 1);
618 _CMM_STORE_SHARED(crdp->cbs.head, NULL);
619 cbs_tail = (struct cds_wfq_node **)
620 uatomic_xchg(&crdp->cbs.tail, &crdp->cbs.head);
621 /* Create default call rcu data if need be */
622 (void) get_default_call_rcu_data();
623 cbs_endprev = (struct cds_wfq_node **)
624 uatomic_xchg(&default_call_rcu_data, cbs_tail);
625 *cbs_endprev = cbs;
626 uatomic_add(&default_call_rcu_data->qlen,
627 uatomic_read(&crdp->qlen));
628 wake_call_rcu_thread(default_call_rcu_data);
629 }
630
631 call_rcu_lock(&call_rcu_mutex);
632 cds_list_del(&crdp->list);
633 call_rcu_unlock(&call_rcu_mutex);
634
635 free(crdp);
636 }
637
638 /*
639 * Clean up all the per-CPU call_rcu threads.
640 */
641 void free_all_cpu_call_rcu_data(void)
642 {
643 int cpu;
644 struct call_rcu_data *crdp;
645
646 if (maxcpus <= 0)
647 return;
648 for (cpu = 0; cpu < maxcpus; cpu++) {
649 crdp = get_cpu_call_rcu_data(cpu);
650 if (crdp == NULL)
651 continue;
652 set_cpu_call_rcu_data(cpu, NULL);
653 call_rcu_data_free(crdp);
654 }
655 }
656
657 /*
658 * Acquire the call_rcu_mutex in order to ensure that the child sees
659 * all of the call_rcu() data structures in a consistent state.
660 * Suitable for pthread_atfork() and friends.
661 */
662 void call_rcu_before_fork(void)
663 {
664 call_rcu_lock(&call_rcu_mutex);
665 }
666
667 /*
668 * Clean up call_rcu data structures in the parent of a successful fork()
669 * that is not followed by exec() in the child. Suitable for
670 * pthread_atfork() and friends.
671 */
672 void call_rcu_after_fork_parent(void)
673 {
674 call_rcu_unlock(&call_rcu_mutex);
675 }
676
677 /*
678 * Clean up call_rcu data structures in the child of a successful fork()
679 * that is not followed by exec(). Suitable for pthread_atfork() and
680 * friends.
681 */
682 void call_rcu_after_fork_child(void)
683 {
684 struct call_rcu_data *crdp, *next;
685
686 /* Release the mutex. */
687 call_rcu_unlock(&call_rcu_mutex);
688
689 /* Do nothing when call_rcu() has not been used */
690 if (cds_list_empty(&call_rcu_data_list))
691 return;
692
693 /*
694 * Allocate a new default call_rcu_data structure in order
695 * to get a working call_rcu thread to go with it.
696 */
697 default_call_rcu_data = NULL;
698 (void)get_default_call_rcu_data();
699
700 /* Cleanup call_rcu_data pointers before use */
701 maxcpus_reset();
702 free(per_cpu_call_rcu_data);
703 per_cpu_call_rcu_data = NULL;
704 thread_call_rcu_data = NULL;
705
706 /* Dispose of all of the rest of the call_rcu_data structures. */
707 cds_list_for_each_entry_safe(crdp, next, &call_rcu_data_list, list) {
708 if (crdp == default_call_rcu_data)
709 continue;
710 uatomic_set(&crdp->flags, URCU_CALL_RCU_STOPPED);
711 call_rcu_data_free(crdp);
712 }
713 }
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